Part 1: Modern History of Space

The 1970's
Introduction / American Space Policy / American Civilian Space Program (NASA) / American Military Space Program: Initial Military Operations / Russian Space Program / European, Asian, and Commercial Space Programs

The 1980's
Introduction / American Space Policy / American Civilian Space Program (NASA) / American Military Space Program: Initial Military Operations / Russian Space Program / European, Asian, and Commercial Space Programs

The 1990's
Introduction & American Space Policy / American Civilian Space Program (NASA) / American Military Space Program: Initial Military Operations / Russian Space Program / European, Asian, and Commercial Space Programs

Part 2: Historical & Technical Perspectives of Remote Sensing

The Concept of Remote Sensing

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The Photon / Distribution of Radiant Energies / Transmittance, Absorptance, and Reflectance / Spectral Signatures

Interpretation and Classification

History of Remote Sensing
In the Beginning / Multispectral Images / Color & False Color Composites / Apollo 9 Multispectral Images / Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) / Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) / A Landsat Image / MSS Histograms / Thematic Mapper (TM) / Examples of TM Imagery

Other Remote Sensing Systems
SPOT and Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) / IRS-1 and JERS Series / Hyperspectral Imaging / Radar Systems / SeaWifs


Section 1: Image Processing and Interpretation - Morro Bay, California

TM Band 3 of Morro Bay, California / Ground and Aerial Photographs of Morro Bay area / Thematic Mapper Bands / Analysis of the Morro Bay Scene / Mystery Feature / Band Information Characteristics / False Color View / True Color View / Other Color Combos / Contrast Stretching / Spatial Filtering / Principal Components Analysis / Ratioing / Unsupervised Classification / Supervised Classification / Minimum Distance Classification / Maximum Likelihood Classification / Probabilistic Neural Network Classifier

Section 2: Geologic Applications I - Stratigraphy & Structure

Using Landsat for Geological Studies / Geologic Map of Waterpocket Fold / Maximum Likelihood Classification / Geologic Folds / Faults & Joints / Atlanta Groundwater Survey

Section 3: Vegetation Applications - Agriculture, Forestry, and Ecology

SPOT Satellite / AVHRR Vegetation Index of Africa / Kenya & Rift Valley of Africa / South West Kansas, U.S.A. / Morocco / AVHRR Vegetation Index of Africa / Soviet Wheat Harvest; Salton Sea, California-Mexico Border / Amazon Rain Forests; Deforestation / Defoliation, and Mine Wastes

Section 4: Urban and Land Use Applications - From Los Angeles to Paris

Los Angeles, San Diego, and Tucson / Miami, New Orleans, and Atlanta / The U.S. Capital: Washington D.C. / Paris, France, and Florence Italy / Dallas-Fort Worth, First MSS Landsat (ERTS) Scene

Section 5: Geologic Applications II - Mineral & Petroleum Exploration

Geological Setting at White Mountain, Utah / Ratio, PCA & Maximum Likelihood Analysis of the Utah Site / Finding Oil & Gas in Oklahoma

Section 6: Flight Across the United States - Boston to Denver to San Francisco

Boston, MA TM Scene / Pennsylvania, Appalachians, TM Scene / Chicago, Illinois, TM Scene / Elkhart, Kansas, TM Scene / Denver, Colorado, and Front Range TM Scene / Four Corners - Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah TM / Nevada TM Scene / San Francisco Bay Area, California, TM Scene

Section 7: Regional Studies - Use of Mosaics from Landsat

Photographic Mosaic of Los Angeles, U.S.A. / MSS Mosaic San Francisco to San Diego, U.S.A. / Digital Elevation Model: California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, U.S.A. / MSS Mosaic, Western U.S.A. / Casper Ridge, Wyoming, U.S.A. / European Alps / Iran-Pakistan-India

Section 8: Radar and Microwave Remote Sensing

Radar Defined / How RADAR works / Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Nigeria/Cameroon / Pine Mountain Thrust; Effect of Illumination Angles / Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Polarization; Radar Penetration / Seasat Images / SIR-A, -B, and -C on the Space Shuttle / Topex/Poseidon; ERS; JERS; and Radarsat / Passive Microwave; Lidar

Section 9: The Warm Earth - Thermal Remote Sensing

Planck Blackbody Law / The Wien Displacement Law and Emissivity Effects / Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Inertia Defined / White Mountain Thermal Features / Lakes Erie/Ontario TM Band 6 / Death Valley TM Data / Mauna Loa, Hawaii, TIMS Data / The Heat Capacity Mission

Section 10: Aerial Photography as Primary & Ancillary Data Sources

New Zealand and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania / Photographic Process Photogrammetry

Section 11: The Earth's Surface in 3D - Stereo Systems and Topographic Mapping

The Concept of Contours / Seeing in Stereo / DEMs and other Viewing Modes / The GPS System / Altimetry / Radar Stereo/Interferometry / Stereo Pairs from Space

Section 12: The Human Remote Senser in Space - Astronaut Photography
Guest Writer: Dr. Paul D. Lowman Jr.

Mercury and Gemini / Apollo Photography / Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz / Shuttle Photography; Kosmos

Section 13: Collecting Data at the Surface - Ground Truth; Imaging Spectroscopy

Rationale for Surface Observations / Training Sites; Mixed Pixels / Accuracy Assessment / Field Instruments and Measurements; Data Collection Platforms / Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: Imaging Spectrometers / Principles of Spectroscopy / Absorption Processes / Factors that Modify or "Confound" Spectral Curves; Data Analysis / AVIRIS and other Imaging Spectrometers / Examples of Imaging Spectrometer Products; Multisensor Analysis

Section 14: The Water Planet - Meteorological, Oceanographic and Hydrologic Applications of Remote Sensing

Hydrologic Cycle; Meteorological Satellites (General) / Atmospheric Sounders; Classes of Metsats / TIROS and Nimbus / ESSA, DMSP, SSM/I, TRMM / NOAA Series / Geostationary Satellites; GOES; Insat, Meteosat; GMS / ERBS, UARS; ADEOS / Hurricane Andrew; 1993 Storm of the Century / Oceanographic Observations; El Niño / Seasat; Topex-Poseidon; NSCAT / CZCS; SeaWiFS / Ice Monitoring / Hydrologic Applications: Snow Cover; Flooding

Section 15: Geographic Information Systems - The GIS Approach to Decision Making

Maps and Attributes / Data Elements and Models / GIS Defined / A GIS Case Study in Africa / Conducting a GIS Analysis / The PP&L Siting Problem / References

Section 16: Earth Systems Science - Earth Science Enterprise and the EOS Program
Guest Writer: Dr. Mitchell K. Hobish

Overview of ESE and EOS; Global Changes / Earth System Science / National and International Programs / Mission to Planet Earth / EOS Platforms/Sensors; Mission Profiles; EOSDIS / Background Readings

Section 17: Use of Remote Sensing in Basic Science Studies I - Mega-Geomorphology

MegaGeomorphology Defined; Geomorphic Maps / "Geomorphology from Space" / Tectonic/Volcanic Landforms / Fluvial/Deltaic/Coastal Landforms / Karst/Aeolian/Glacial Landforms / Terranes as Terrains: The Klamath, Oregon Study / The Klamaths from Space / Geomorphic Parameters from Maps / Summary of the Klamath Terrane Project

Section 18: Basic Science II: Impact Cratering

Distribution of Craters / Cratering Mechanics / Crater Morphology / Shock Metamorphism / Remote Sensing of Craters

Section 19: Planetary Remote Sensing - The Exploration of Extraterrestrial Bodies

Remote Sensing Techniques / Cosmology / Planetary Parameters / Pre-Apollo Exploration of the Moon / The Apollo Program and Follow-ups / Mercury and Venus / Mars / Overview of the Outer Planets / Jupiter / The Galilean Satellites / Saturn and Its Moons / Uranus, Neptune and Their Satellites / Asteroids and Comets / Comet Shoemaker-Levy

Section 20: Remote Sensing into the 21st Century
Guest Writer: William E. Stoney

Outlook for the Future / Regional Applications Center Program / Commercialization of Space

Appendix A: Cosmology

Origin and Development of the Universe / Big Bang Eras; Galaxies / Birth, Life, and Death of Stars / Space-Time and Expansion / Evidence for the Big Bang; Expansion Models / Accelerating Universes / Origin of Planetary Systems

Appendix B: Interactive Image Processing

Introduction / The Nature of Satellite Digital Data / Digitization / Image Processing / Introduction to PIT / Installing PIT from the Internet / Installing PIT from the CD-ROM / General Overview of PIT / Displaying Images / Histograms and Scatter Plots / Ratioing and Principal Components / Unsupervised Classifications / Supervised Classifications / Conclusion

Appendix C: Principal Components Analysis
Guest Writer: Dr. Jon W Robinson

Introduction / Linear Combinations / Singular Matrices / Space / Standardizing Sets

Appendix D: Satellite Sensor Data Availability Tables

Appendix E: Glossary
Guest Writer: Dr. Jeff Weissel


Primary Author: Nicholas M. Short, Sr. email:
Collaborators: Code 935 NASA GSFC, GST, USAF Academy.

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Last Updated: November '99
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